Grammar

Singular and plural – Birlik va ko’plik

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O’zbek tilida “lar” qo’shimchasi ko’plikni anglatganidek ingliz tilida ham so’zning oxiriga s, es, ies va ves qo’shimchalaridan biri qo’shilishi yoki so’zning o’zgarishi bilan bo’ladi.

So’zning oxiri s, sh, ch, x harflaridan biri bilan tugagan bo’lsa, ko’plikni bildirish uchun “es” qo’shamiz:
bus – buses, dish – dishes, church – churches, box – boxes.

Bundan tashqari quyidagi so’zlarda ham shunday: potato – potatoes, tomato – tomatoes.

So’zning oxiri “y” harfi bilan tugab, undan oldingi harf unli bo’lmasa “y”ni o’rniga “ies” qo’yamiz:
baby – babies, party – parties.

Agar “y” harfidan oldin unli harflar kelsa, “s” qo’shiladi:
day -days, boy – boys, guy – guys, key – keys.

So’zning oxiri f va fe bilan tugagan so’zlarda f va fe o’rniga “ves” qo’shamiz:
shelf – shelves, wife – wives.

Bulardan boshqa so’zlarga faqat “s” qo’shiladi:
Masalan: birlikda book bo’lsa undan ko’plik yasash uchun -s qo’shimchasini qo’shsak kifoya:
week – weeks,
flower – flowers,
brother – brothers,
book – books,
one flower – two flowers
one zebra – four zebras
one lion – three lions

Quyidagi so’zlarga o’xshash ikki bo’lakli narsalar ham asli bitta bo’lsada ko’plik deb e’tiborga olinadi:
scissors – qaychi, glasses – ko’zoynak, shoes – poyafzal, jeans – shim va hokazo.

Ba’zi so’zlarni ko’plikda ishlatish uchun hech qanday qo’shimcha qo’shilmaydi, so’zning o’zi o’zgaradi, bunday so’zlar ko’p emas, ularni yod oling va esda saqlang:
man – men,
child – children,
foot – feet,
mause – mice,
woman – women,
tooth – teeth.

Sheep va fish so’zlari umuman o’zgarmaydi. Ya’ni birlikda ham ko’plikda ham bir xil bo’ladi.

Quyidagi so’zlarni ko’plik shaklini yozing (agar bo’lsa) va o’tgan darsni qanday o’zlashtirganingizni tekshiring.

1. leaf >
2. bottle >
3. mud >
4. ice >
5. stove >
6. duck >
7. soap >
8. city >
9. beach >
10. hair >
11. salt >
12. ship >
13. rice >
14. deer >
15. blouse >
16. work >
17. snow >
18. address >
19. animal >
20. air >

 

1. leaf > Leaves
2. bottle > Bottles
3. mud > Mud
4. ice > Ice
5. stove > Stoves
6. duck > Ducks
7. soap > Soaps
8. city > Cities
9. beach > Beaches
10. hair > Hair
11. salt > Salt
12. ship > Ships
13. rice > Rice
14. deer > Deer
15. blouse > Blouses
16. work > Works
17. snow > Snow
18. address > Addresses
19. animal > Animals
20. air > Air

 

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